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10 Years ofScientific Discovery

GrapheneIsolated

Andre Geim and Kostya Novoselov at University of Manchester publish their first paper on isolating graphene flakes. Students and postdocs from around the world flood to Manchester to take a look at the process for themselves. The team later wins the 2010 Nobel Prize for Physics for their work.

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T-Rex SoftTissue Found

Soft tissue is recovered from the thighbone of a 70 million year old T-Rex discovered in Montana. It is thought that the dinosaur’s iron-rich blood helped to preserve the soft tissue for an unusually long amount of time. As of yet, the find has not been used to create a real-life Jurassic Park.

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The Proof of

the PoincaréConjecture

Grigori Perelman is awarded the Fields Medal for his work to prove the Poincaré Conjecture, using the type of complicated mathematics that would take up too much room on this timeline to reproduce. He declines the award, as well as the 2010 Millennium Prize (and its $1,000,000 prize money) as he feels that it doesn’t adequately recognize the contribution of his colleagues.

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Human GeneticVariation

Researchers use single-nucleotide polymorphisms to establish a link between diseases and genes. Studies find that gene variants hint at a predisposition for a wide spectrum of diseases, including diabetes, Crohn’s, breast cancer and multiple sclerosis. As with many scientific discoveries, the ethical concerns of this research will be discussed for many years.

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DiscoveringIce on Mars

After seven months in space, the Phoenix lander arrives on Mars, and soon after, discovers the first traces of ice. The ice, found in a ditch christened ‘The Dodo-Goldilocks Trench’, sublimates four days later, proving it to be water ice and leading to a huge amount of excitement at NASA. The find is heralded as another step towards discovering whether life on Mars exists.

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Discoveryof Ardi

Scientists announce the discovery of a skeleton of our oldest human ancestor. Ardi was first unearthed in Ethiopia in 1994 and is thought to be some 4.4 million years old. The research uncovers a previously unknown stage of evolution, as well as debunking the notion of the ‘Missing Link’.

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SyntheticBiology

Scientists build a synthetic genome from scratch and use it to control a cell. J. Craig Venter leads a team of over 20 people for more than a decade before confirming the find. The work leads to much discussion about the pros and cons of designer genomes and even triggers its own Congressional hearing around Synthetic Biology.

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HPTN 052Clinical Trial

Researchers announce ‘The Beginning of the End of AIDS’ as a result of clinical trial HPTN 052. The research shows that anti retroviral drugs reduce the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV by a staggering 96%. The hope is that this treatment as prevention continues to evolve and brings an end to the AIDS epidemics that have blighted countries across the world.

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Discovery of theHiggs Boson

The boson is finally uncovered using CERN’s $5 billion Large Hadron Collider. More than 6,000 people from 100 nations have a hand in the project, with the results recognized on a worldwide scale. News of the ‘God particle’ (although the scientists dislike this nickname) even garner a celebratory tweet from Mr Black Eyed Peas himself, will.i.am.

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CancerImmunotherapy

Science names cancer immunotherapy treatment its ‘Breakthrough of the Year’, despite the research being at a relatively early stage. Cancer immunotherapy harnesses the power of the body’s immune system to fight cancer, rather than focusing solely on targeting tumours. Scientists are naturally wary of announcing a false dawn but it’s another hugely positive breakthrough in the ongoing fight against cancer.

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ScopusTurns 10

After a decade of making research easier for users across the globe, Scopus celebrates its 10th anniversary. The world’s largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature, the Scopus database contains 54 million records with entries going back as far as 1823. Here’s to another 10 years of helping researchers go beyond search into discovery, analysis and success.

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Imagine Tomorrow

The past 10 years have seen some of the most progressive and momentous scientific developments in human history, but this is only the beginning. For an insight into what the next 10 years may bring watch our interviews with key Elsevier thought leaders.

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